Patient Glossary & Resources:
At The Pediatric Endocrine & Diabetes Clinic, PC, Dr. Kabbani and his staff are here to serve the pediatric patient population that come with an endocrine related symptom. The Endocrine System influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. The endocrine system is a key for insuring a healthy and well-functioning body especially in the pediatric age population. A well-functioning endocrine system is essential for normal brain development, growth, sexual development and reproductive system, energy, metabolism and mood.
If you are looking for information about your condition, check out this extensive collection of definitions, articles, and websites.
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Adrenal Disorders We have two adrenal glands, one sitting on top of each kidney. These glands produce different kinds of hormones that are essential for our survival such as Cortisol. The adrenal glands are also responsible for maintaining normal blood pressure and normal sexual development. Adrenal gland disorders can arise from inability of the glands to produce sufficient amount of hormones or from producing excessive amount of hormones. Examples of these adrenal gland disorders are diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cushing's syndrome and addison's disease.
Ambiguous Genitalia Ambiguous genitalia is when a baby's sex cannot be specified at birth. This condition can arise due to hormonal abnormality that affected the fetus during pregnancy. Other terminology for this condition is hermaphrodite.
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual cycle for over 6 months period. Primary amenorrhea is the failure to start having a period by the age of 16.
Cholesterol Test A complete cholesterol test (also called a lipid panel or lipid profile) measures the amount of "good" and "bad" cholesterol and the level of triglycerides in your blood. Cholesterol is a soft, waxy fat that your body needs to function properly. However, too much cholesterol can lead to heart disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis (a clogging or hardening of your arteries).
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an adrenal gland disorder that is genetic in origin. The body cannot produce enough cortisol and makes too much of a hormone called androgen. The symptoms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia include ambiguous genitalia in baby girls at birth, severe dehydration and low blood pressure and early pubertal development.
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome results from excessive production of the hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands. The illness is marked by s obesity, diabetes, excessive body hair, fatigue, and hypertension.
Delayed Puberty Puberty is described as delayed when one has passed the usual age of onset of puberty, 14 years, with no physical or hormonal signs of onset of puberty. Delay of puberty may also occur due to malnutrition, many forms of systemic disease, or to defects of the reproductive system (hypogonadism) or the body's responsiveness to sex hormones. For further information, read Delayed Puberty - Teens.
Diabetes Insipidus Is a hormonal disorder where the body cannot concentrate the urine normally hence losing lots of water in the urine and the person will be thirsty all the time.
Diabetes Mellitus Type I Diabetes mellitus type I (formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increase in blood sugar level and subsequently the sugar start showing up in the urine. The classical symptoms are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), and weight loss. Type I diabetes can be controlled with supplemental insulin. Insulin is most commonly administered by injection at periodic intervals several times per day or through insulin pumps.
Diabetes Mellitus Type II Diabetes mellitus type II (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type II diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease. Type II diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood glucose levels are not adequately lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed.
Dwarfism Dwarfism is a term applied broadly to a number of conditions resulting in unusually short stature.
Graves' Disease Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder. It causes hyperthyroidism, which occurs if the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone in the body.
Goiter Goiter is a condition where there is an increase in the size of the thyroid gland.
Growth Hormone Deficiency Growth hormone deficiency also called dwarfism and pituitary dwarfism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough growth hormone.
Growth Hormone Stimulation Test The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the level of growth hormone (GH) in the blood after you receive medication that triggers the release of GH, such as arginine and glucagon. The test measures the ability of the pituitary gland to release GH. To learn about growth hormone stimulation test, check out this extensive website: Mediline Plus − Growth hormone stimulation test.
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks your thyroid gland. When this occurs, the thyroid gland becomes inflamed. Hashimoto is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, an underactive thyroid.
Hormone Hormone is a chemical released by a cell, a gland, or an organ in one part of the body that affects cells in other parts of the body.
Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia is high blood sugar. It is a condition characterized by excessively high levels of glucose in the blood, and occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have to turn glucose into energy. Hyperglycemia is often indicative of diabetes that is out of control. Individuals who are overweight, inactive and have family members affected by hyperglycemia or diabetes are at greater risk of suffering from this condition.
Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized endocrine glands located in your neck, near or attached to the back of your thyroid gland. PTH helps regulate the levels of calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus in your bones and blood.
Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is the overproduction of thyroid hormone by an overactive thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of the neck below your Adam's apple. Proper diagnosis and treatment relieves the symptoms of overactive thyroid gland and prevents complications.
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar. Glucose, or sugar, is the main fuel the body uses to operate on. Sometimes the operations needed for the body to maintain appropriate levels of glucose don't function properly, leading to hypoglycemia.
Hypoparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition that occurs when the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH). Everyone has four parathyroid glands, located near of behind the thyroid gland. Each small gland is the size of a grain of rice. The major function of PTH is to regulate the level of calcium in the body. It also controls the level of phosphorus and participates in maintaining normal level of vitamin D. All of these activities are required to maintain calcium balance. Having too little PTH causes low levels of calcium and high levels of phosphorus in the body.
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a condition where your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Low levels of thyroid hormone interfere with the body's ability to perform normal metabolic functions such as efficient use of energy from food products, regulation of many chemical reactions in the body, and maintenance of healthy cells, bones and muscles.
Lipids Disorder Lipid disorders are abnormalities in the amount of fatty substances, called lipids, in the blood. Cholesterol and triglycerides are two types of lipids measured.
Obesity Obesity occurs when a person carries too much weight and body fat. It is determined based on weight for height. The body mass index (BMI) is the most used tool when it comes to classifying obesity. BMI is calculated through a mathematical equation which is your weight in kilograms divided by your height in meters, squared. BMI = [(weight in kg) / (height in meters2). A child is considered over weight when his or her BMI >85% for age and sex and is considered to be obese when his or BMI > 95% for sex and age. To learn more about what it means to be overweight and the consequences of being overweight, check out the following articles: What Being Overweight Means - Kids and When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem - Teens.
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that weakens bones and makes them susceptible to bone fractures. Osteoporosis literally means "porous bone".
Pituitary Dwarfism Pituitary Dwarfism is a condition in which the growth of the child is very slow or delayed. The word pituitary is in reference to the pituitary gland in the body. This gland produces and regulates different chemicals (hormones) in the body including the growth hormone. Therefore, pituitary dwarfism is decreased bodily growth due to inability of the pituitary gland to produce enough amount of growth hormone. The end result is a proportionate little person, because the height as well as the growth of all other structures of the individual are decreased.
Polydipsia Polydipsia is chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake.
Polyphagia Polyphagia or hyperphagia refers to excessive hunger or increased appetite.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, is a condition in which a female's levels of the sex hormones are out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts (benign masses on the ovaries). PCOS can cause problems with a female’s menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function, and appearance.
Polyuria Polyuria is frequent urination, it is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus but it can be also a symptom of other hormonal disorder such as diabetes insipidus.
Precocious Puberty Precocious puberty describes puberty onset at an unusually early age (prior to the age of 8 years in girls and prior to the age of 9 years in boys). In most of these children, the process is normal in every respect except the unusually early age, and simply represents a variation of normal development. In a small minority of children, the early development is triggered by a disease such as a tumor or injury of the brain. Even in instances where there is no disease causing the early puberty, unusually early puberty can have adverse effects on social behavior and psychological development, can reduce adult height potential, and may shift some lifelong health risks. Central precocious puberty can be treated by suppressing the pituitary hormones that induce sex steroid production. Growth Problems - Teens is an article that discusses the various medical reasons for growth problems, including precocious puberty.
Puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization.
Short Stature Short stature is a height that is smaller than the lowest normal height for a child's age and sex. It is specifically height that is below the third percentile on the growth chart.
Thyroid Thyroid gland is a small gland, shaped something like a butterfly. It is located in the lower front part of the neck, just below the voice box. The thyroid gland produces a hormone that is carried in the blood to every tissue in the body. It helps regulate metabolism, or how the body turns food into energy. It also plays a role in keeping the organs functioning properly and helping the body conserve heat. To learn more about the thyroid and the various thyroid diseases, check out: Thyroid Disease and Teens.
Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder affecting females wherein one of the two X-chromosomes is defective or completely absent. Turner syndrome is characterized by retarded growth that leads to a small stature and infertility. Girls with Turner syndrome can benefit from growth hormone therapy to optimize their height. Most girls with Turner syndrome will require replacement with the female sex hormone when they become teenagers.